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Spent the day strolling around town with my husband, visiting cafe's and resting in the hotel. A short holiday is always good. It was very positive that the surgery didn't interrupt my daily life the next days. Everything was great and I'm really happy that I decided to do the laser surgery in Dr. Solomatin's eye clinic. If anyone goes to ask me recommendation I will recommend this clinic.

The cornea and lens assume the role of the camera lens. They bundle the parallel incidental light rays and determine the focal distance. In an eye with normal vision, the light rays are focused so that the focal point is on the retina itself. The result is a sharply focused image. This is then transmitted via the optic nerve to the brain. Nearsightedness is the most common vision defect world-wide. Almost half the global population is — to varying degrees — affected by it. In nearsighted people, the eye is too long in relation to its refractive power.

Light rays are refracted by the cornea and the lens in such a way that the focal point lies in front of the retina. By the time the rays hit the retina itself, they are already drifting apart. The result is a retinal image which is out of focus.

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Distant objects appear blurred. Depending on the degree of vision defect, near objects are in sharp focus. In farsighted people, the eye is too short in relation to the refractive power. Light rays are refracted by the cornea and the lens in such a way that the focal point is behind the retina. A blurred image is then created on the retina because the rays are not yet focused when they hit it.

Up to a certain age this lack of refractive power can be compensated by changing the shape of the lens accommodation. Depending on the extent of the farsightedness, objects which are close, and even distant ones in some cases, are no longer in sharp focus. In people with astigmatism, the curvature of the cornea is uneven. The resulting refraction causes multiple focal points to be created. Objects both near and far appear skewed or distorted. Astigmatism can occur independently or be accompanied by farsightedness or nearsightedness.

A life without glasses — The different laser treatment options The treatment steps. Step 1: In a single step the VisuMax femtosecond laser creates a thin lenticule and a small access measuring less than 4 mm in the intact cornea. Step 2: The surgeon removes the lenticule through the small access. Step 3: The minimally invasive removal of the lenticule changes the shape of the cornea, correcting the refractive error of the eye.

Enjoy the freedom from glasses and contact lenses! Register for the laser eye surgery today! This is the moment we work for. Laser eye surgery was one of the best investments I've made!

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Aivi R. Before After. Unlike in all other laser eye surgery procedures, the corneal tissue is not ablated using an excimer laser. A small lenticule is prepared inside the intact cornea using the femtosecond laser. This lenticule is removed through an access point just a few millimeters across. How do these procedures differ from ReLEx? The exposed deeper layers of the cornea are then ablated using an excimer laser.

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The disadvantages: there is significantly greater pain after the operation, and the healing process and the stabilization of visual acuity take a relatively long time. The risk of scarring haze is significantly higher. The name Carl Zeiss has stood for quality and precision in optics since In Carl Zeiss unveiled the first excimer laser for refractive correction of the eye. Over the last 25 years the company has been at the forefront of advances in the laser correction of vision defects.

Femtosecond technology has been extensively trialed and has proven its clinical value over many years. Refractive lenticule extraction has been performed in controlled clinical studies since The first patients have already undergone 5 years of post-treatment monitoring. ReLEx smile is now being deployed in many countries worldwide as a standard treatment method.

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As with all other vision correction methods, you will have to undergo a detailed eye examination. The nature and degree of ametropia, the curvature and thickness of the cornea, as well as many other factors play a role.

If the patient has a gummy smile, an esthetic smile arc should be developed by using SAP bracket positioning and temporary anchorage devices or utility aches for intrusion, rather than relying on bracket position. To develop a pleasing smile arc and positively affect the anterior portion of the upper occlusal plane cant, the maxillary anterior brackets are positioned more gingivally for SAP than in traditional techniques Fig. The maxillary archwire plane is then parallel to the upper lip; the incisal edges of the upper anterior teeth will follow the lower lip with treatment Fig. The divergence of the wire from the occlusal cusp tips or incisal edges increases from posterior to anterior Fig.

The greater the differential from the buccal segments to the anterior segment, the more the wire plane helps increase the maxillary occlusal plane cant in relation to true Frankfort horizontal NHP. When the occlusion is disarticulated with bite turbos and mechanics are supported by very light, short elastics from the first appointment, uprighting of proclined teeth will begin, even on light, round wires.

Clinicians report that these techniques can improve upper incisor and gingival display, smile arc, and incisor inclinations as early as the third appointment. Slot at facial axis point. SAP positioning. Rungsi Thavarungkul, Bangkok, Thailand. Case image courtesy of Dr. Inversion does not alter the tip or in-out geometry of well-designed incisor brackets. Unfortunately, due to a number of common factors—oversize bracket slots, inconsistent slot geometries as caused by poor manufacturing tolerance control 10 , overly large slot corner radii, variable self-ligating bracket rigidity, and use of excessively small wires— even the highest-quality appliances are not able to deliver consistent expression of their stated torque prescriptions, because torsional play overrides the differences between various prescription values.

Moreover, most clinicians do not fill the slot, which further degrades torsional expression. Case 2, in progress at seven months, demonstrates the effect of SAP bracket positioning on the wire plane and the resulting smile arc Figs. Divergence of wire from cusp tips or incisal edges increases from posterior to anterior. After seven months of treatment.

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Lower arch will continue to level. Research has shown that actual clinical torsional play in self-ligating brackets can be as much as two and a half times more than predicted by mathematical models, 11 making reliable expression of 3rd-order movements problematic. With SAP bracket positioning, the effective prescription of the bracket is reduced relative to the occlusal plane, so that torsional moments for uprighting proclined teeth are engaged early in wire progressions.

It is important to recognize that the maxillary occlusal plane, as viewed in NHP, is a significant contributor to the esthetics of the smile Fig. Obviously, the flatter the plane, the more difficult it is to manage the case esthetically Fig. Counterclockwise rotation, which can occur when the upper anterior brackets are placed incisally to the recommended SAP positions, can result in esthetic decline.

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In combination with the appropriate use of bite turbos and immediate light, short elastics, SAP bracket positioning helps control the cant of the maxillary occlusal plane from the outset of treatment, offering a wider range of treatment options. If the occlusal plane is flat, the gingival bracket divergence should be increased even farther from traditional positioning to enhance enamel and gingival incisor display.

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Because it is crucial not to deepen the bite while enhancing the smile arc with individual bracket positioning, 4 anterior bite turbos should be used to allow eruption of the lower molars. One of the challenges presented by crowded nonextraction cases is to control or correct preexisting upper incisor proclination, or to prevent the proclination that often results from space-gaining mechanics.

Incisor proclination adversely impacts esthetics in many ways. In the frontal smile, labially inclined incisors are visually shorter and make an esthetic smile arc more difficult to obtain by reducing incisor dominance and the effective crown height and enamel display, as demonstrated in Case 3 Figs. Since the most effective application of force is close to the center of resistance, bracket positioning also has an important effect on torque.

If the incisal portion of the pad is fully seated against the enamel, however, the change in effective torque will be minimal. It is also useful in a situation where torque within the slot is desirable.